Through Dana's parent-training workshops, caregivers are taught to recognize the central role that routine plays in speech-pattern modification.

By 2 Years, A Child Should:

By 3 Years, A Child Should:

By 4 Years, A Child Should:

Sound Development in English

Children learn to say, or acquire, sounds at different ages, generally following a set pattern. Most children have acquired all their sounds by Grade 1.

By the time a child finishes Nursery, he/ she should be able to clearly say:

p, m, h, n, w, b, k, g, d, t
As well as approximations of longer sounds (s, z, sh, f, v)

By the end of Junior Kindergarten, he/ she should be able to clearly say:

f, v, y (as in “yes”), and consonant blends (spoon, stop)

By the end of Senior Kindergarten, he/ she should be starting to clearly say:

s, z, r, l, sh, ch, j (as in “juice”), th, zh (as in “measure”)

• Although it is important to remember that some children acquire sounds earlier than others, a referral for a speech assessment is recommended if a child has not acquired their sounds at the appropriate ages.
• If a child cannot say vowels correctly or consistently, a speech pathology assessment is strongly recommended.
• When a child says a sound correctly sometimes, but not all the time, it usually means that he/ she is in the process of acquiring that sound.

Speech Facts

1 in 10 children have a speech or language difficulty
Most children have their first word by the time they are 12 months old
Many children can combine words into 2-word phrases by the time they are 18 months to 2 years of age.
5% of children stutter, but only 1% continue to stutter into adulthood